Effects Cognitive Stimulation Therapy For Dementia: Systematic Review

Ni Ketut Elmiyanti, Niswa Salamung

= http://dx.doi.org/10.24990/injec.v7i2.539
Abstract views = 153 times | views = 194 times


Introduction:  The prevalence of dementia in the elderly continues to increase and the need for appropriate interventions, one therapy that can be used is cognitive stimulation therapy (CST). The aim of this study was to analyze the level of evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive simulation therapy for elderly people with dementia.

Methods: The systematic review of this study pays attention to the inclusion criteria, namely articles in English, using cognitive stimulation therapy interventions in the study and the population is the elderly. Articles sourced from the electronic databases Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scholar, and ProQuest, were identified as appropriate and relevant to this topic. Fifteen research studies were selected and analyzed because they qualify as review articles for systematic review.

Results: Thirteen studies were Randomized Control Trial (RCT), one controlled clinical trial and one group pretest-posttest. The results showed that CST was very influential on memory, language comprehension, and orientation for cognitive improvement in mild to moderate dementia. CST should be done periodically to get good results. In addition, the effect of CST may differ according to what factors are emphasized in the program.

Conclusion: CST in the elderly with mild to moderate dementia can significantly improve overall cognitive function.


Dementia; Cognitive Stimulation Therapy, elderly

Full Text:



Abraha, I. et al. (2017) “Systematic review of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions to treat behavioural disturbances in older patients with dementia. The SENATOR-OnTop series,” BMJ open. British Medical Journal Publishing Group, 7(3), hal. e012759. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012759

Aguirre, E. et al. (2012) “Cognitive stimulation therapy ( CST ) for people with dementia — who bene fi ts most ? †,” hal. 67–73. doi: 10.1002/gps.3823.

Aguirre, E. et al. (2014) “The effects of a Cognitive Stimulation Therapy [ CST ] programme for people with dementia on family caregivers ’ health.” doi:10.1186/1471-2318-14-31

Bossers, W. J. W. et al. (2017) “Positive effects of combined cognitive and physical exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia : A meta- analysis,” Ageing Research Reviews. Elsevier B.V. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.09.003.

Capotosto, E. et al. (2016) “Cognitive stimulation therapy in the Italian context : its ef fi cacy in cognitive and non-cognitive measures in older adults with dementia.” doi: 10.1002/gps.4521.

Carbone, E. et al. (2021) “Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Older Adults With Mild-to-Moderate Dementia in Italy : Effects on Cognitive Functioning , and on Emotional and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms,” XX(Xx), hal. 1–11. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbab007.

Filipa, D., Cardoso, B. dan Rosa, A. I. (2014) “The Effect of Cognitive Stimulation on Nursing Home Elders : A Randomized Controlled Trial,” hal. 157–166. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12072.

Fujii, H. O. M. O. N. S. T. (2018) “Combined Exercise and Cognitive Training System for Dementia Patients : A Randomized Controlled Trial,” 8551, hal. 318–325. doi: 10.1159/000490613.

Hall, L. et al. (2013) “Cognitive stimulation therapy ( CST ): neuropsychological,” hal. 479–489. doi: 10.1017/S1041610212001822.

Hodge, S., Hailey, E. dan Orrell, M. (2014) “Memory services national accreditation Programme (MSNAP) standards for memory services,” London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.

Legere, L. E. et al. (2018) “Nonpharmacological approaches for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in older adults: A systematic review of reviews,” Journal of Clinical Nursing. Wiley Online Library, 27(7–8), hal. e1360–e1376.https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.14007

Livingston, G. et al. (2017) “Dementia prevention, intervention, and care,” The Lancet. Elsevier, 390(10113), hal. 2673–2734. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31363-6

Marinho, V. et al. (2020) “Cognitive stimulation therapy for people with dementia in Brazil (CST ‐ Brasil): Results from a single blind randomized controlled trial,” (August). doi: 10.1002/gps.5421.

Organization, W. H. (2017) “Global action plan on the public health response to dementia 2017–2025.” World Health Organization.

Orrell, M. et al. (2014) “Maintenance cognitive stimulation therapy for dementia : single-blind , multicentre , pragmatic randomised controlled trial,” hal. 454–461. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.137414.

Orrell, M. et al. (2017) “The impact of individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy ( iCST ) on cognition , quality of life , caregiver health , and family relationships in dementia : A randomised controlled trial,” hal. 1–22. doi: 10.1186/ISRCTN65945963.

Park, J., Kim, M. dan Shim, H. (2019) “Effects of a Multicomponent Cognitive Stimulation Program on Cognitive Function Improvement Among Elderly Women,” Asian Nursing Research. Elsevier, (November), hal. 1–7. doi: 10.1016/j.anr.2019.11.001.

Piras, F. et al. (2017) “Efficacy of cognitive stimulation therapy for older adults with vascular dementia,” 11(4), hal. 434–441. doi: 10.1590/1980-57642016dn11-040014.

Prince, M. J. et al. (2016) “World Alzheimer Report 2016-Improving healthcare for people living with dementia: Coverage, quality and costs now and in the future.” Alzheimer’s Disease International.

Rai, H., Yates, L. dan Orrell, M. (2018) “Cognitive Stimulation T h e r a p y fo r D e m e n t i a,” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. Elsevier Inc. doi: 10.1016/j.cger.2018.06.010.

Spector, A. (2020) “Validation of the cognitive stimulation therapy ( CST ) program for people with dementia in Portugal Validation of the cognitive stimulation therapy ( CST ) program for people,” Aging & Mental Health. Routledge, 0(0), hal. 1–10. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2020.1836473.

Spector, A., Orrell, M. dan Woods, B. (2012) “Cognitive Stimulation Therapy ( CST ): effects on different areas of cognitive function for people with dementia y,” hal. 1253–1258. doi: 10.1002/gps.2464.

Yamanaka, K. et al. (2013) “Effects of cognitive stimulation therapy Japanese version ( CST-J ) for people with dementia : a single- blind , controlled clinical trial,” (January 2015), hal. 37–41. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2013.777395.

Young, D. K.-W. (2020) “Multicomponent intervention combining a cognitive stimulation group and tai chi to reduce cognitive decline among community-dwelling older adults with probable dementia: A multi-center, randomized controlled trial,” Dementia. SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England, 19(6), hal. 2073–2089. https://doi.org/10.1177/1471301218814637

Young, D. K. et al. (2018) “The effects of an expanded cognitive stimulation therapy model on the improvement of cognitive ability of elderly with mild stage Dementia living in a community — a randomized waitlist controlled trial.” Taylor & Francis, 7863(May). doi: 10.1080/13607863.2018.1471586.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This journal is indexed by:



Creative Commons License

Copyright of Indonesian Nursing Journal of Education and Clinic (INJEC) (e-ISSN:2527-8819, p-ISSN:2527-8800).

View My Stats