Using Team Supports and Gamified Web-Based Approaches to Attain Recommended Levels of Physical Activity Among International Indonesian Students

Yosi Maria Wijaya, Fransiskus Xaverius Widiantoro

Abstract views = 20 times | views = 10 times


Introduction: The interactive web-based, blended with tri-axial accelerometer by smartphone Apps, have the potential to help university students adopt and maintain a physically active lifestyle.The purposes of this text was to evaluated a gamification base for International Indonesia students to determine the impacts of a program building with psychosocial base to increase the exercise efficacy to attain a recommended level of physical activity. Methods: A non-equivalent control group with pre and posttest design conducted in 86-Indonesian international students with a time cluster randomize to avoid information contamination between groups. The intervention group received a Social Cognitive Theory skill-building by web-based game with team competition for 10-week program. Outcomes include physical activity, health outcomes, and cardiopulmonary fitness. ANCOVA and McNemar X2 test was adopted to test pre- and post-outcome effects.  Results: The intervention group recorded more steps/day than those in the control (p <0.001, eta = 0.522), more distance (p <0.001, eta = 0.521), greater calories consumption (p <0.001, eta = 0.419), more longer (time) (p <0.001, eta = 0.217), more physical fitness (p <0.001, eta = 0.168), lower body weight (p <0.002, eta = 0.131), lower BMI (p <0.001, eta = 0.149), and lower systolic blood pressure (p <0.007, eta = 0.103). Conclusions: Web-based game with group competition programs can successfully increase physical activity among international university students.The results could serve as a good approach for health professionals to design an effective program toachieve recommended levels of physical activity and the physical fitness.


physical activity, outcome expectancy,self-efficacy, university students, web-based

Full Text:



Alfawareh, H. M., &Jusoh, S. (2014). Smartphones usage among university students: najran university case. International Journal of Academic Research, 6(2).

Alsubaie, A. S., & Omer, E. O. (2015). Physical activity behavior predictors, reasons and barriers among male adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: evidence for obesogenic environment. International journal of health sciences, 9(4), 400.

Carr, L. J., Bartee, R. T., Dorozynski, C., Broomfield, J. F., Smith, M. L., & Smith, D. T. (2008). Internet-delivered behavior change program increases physical activity and improves cardiometabolic disease risk factors in sedentary adults: results of a randomized controlled trial. Preventive medicine, 46(5), 431-438.

Cugelman, B. (2013). Gamification: what it is and why it matters to digital health behavior change developers. JMIR Serious Games, 1(1).

Davies, C. A., Spence, J. C., Vandelanotte, C., Caperchione, C. M., & Mummery, W. K. (2012). Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 52.

Dumith, S. C., Hallal, P. C., Reis, R. S., & Kohl III, H. W. (2011). Worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and its association with human development index in 76 countries. Prev Med, 53(1-2), 24-28

Fjeldsoe, B., Neuhaus, M., Winkler, E., & Eakin, E. (2011). Systematic review of maintenance of behavior change following physical activity and dietary interventions. Health Psychology, 30(1), 99.

Göbel, S., Hardy, S., Wendel, V., Mehm, F., & Steinmetz, R. (2010, October). Serious games for health: personalized exergames. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM international conference on Multimedia (pp. 1663-1666). ACM.

Grim, M., Hortz, B., & Petosa, R. (2011). Impact evaluation of a pilot web-based intervention to increase physical activity. American Journal of Health Promotion, 25(4), 227-230.

Hargreaves, E. A., Mutrie, N., & Fleming, J. D. (2016). A Web-Based Intervention to Encourage Walking (StepWise): Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR research protocols, 5(1).

Joseph, R. P., Pekmezi, D. W., Lewis, T., Dutton, G., Turner, L. W., & Durant, N. H. (2013). Physical activity and social cognitive theory outcomes of an internet-enhanced physical activity intervention for African American female college students. Journal of health disparities research and practice, 6(2), 1.

Kenya, S., Brodsky, M., Divale, W., Allegrante, J. P., &Fullilove, R. E. (2003). Effects of immigration on selected health risk behaviors of Black college students. Journal of American college health, 52(3), 113-120.

Lee, I. M., Shiroma, E. J., Lobelo, F., Puska, P., Blair, S. N., &Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2012). Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. The Lancet, 380(9838), 219-229. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(12)61031-9

Lim, K. C., Waters, C. M., Froelicher, E. S., &Kayser-Jones, J. S. (2008). Conceptualizing physical activity behavior of older Korean-Americans: An integration of Korean culture and social cognitive theory. Nursing outlook, 56(6), 322-329.

Maes, S., &Karoly, P. (2005). Self‐regulation assessment and intervention in physical health and illness: A review. Applied Psychology, 54(2), 267-299.

Marcus, B. H., Williams, D. M., Dubbert, P. M., Sallis, J. F., King, A. C., Yancey, A. K., ... &Claytor, R. P. (2006). Physical activity intervention studies: what we know and what we need to know: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity); Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. Circulation, 114(24), 2739-2752.

Marcus, B. H., Ciccolo, J. T., &Sciamanna, C. N. (2008). Using electronic/computer interventions to promote physical activity. British journal of sports medicine.

Markus, H. R., &Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological review, 98(2), 224.

McIntosh, J., Jay, S., Hadden, N., & Whittaker, P. (2017). Do E-health interventions improve physical activity in young people: a systematic review. Public Health, 148, 140-148

Norman, G. J., Zabinski, M. F., Adams, M. A., Rosenberg, D. E., Yaroch, A. L., & Atienza, A. A. (2007). A review of eHealth interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change. American journal of preventive medicine, 33(4), 336-345.

Pagliari, C., Sloan, D., Gregor, P., Sullivan, F., Detmer, D., Kahan, J. P., ... & MacGillivray, S. (2005). What is eHealth (4): a scoping exercise to map the field. Journal of medical Internet research, 7(1).

Pengpid, S., Peltzer, K., Kassean, H. K., Tsala, J. P. T., Sychareun, V., & Müller-Riemenschneider, F. (2015). Physical inactivity and associated factors among university students in 23 low-, middle-and high-income countries. International journal of public health, 60(5), 539-549.

Prochaska, J. O., &Velicer, W. F. (1997). The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. American journal of health promotion, 12(1), 38-48.

Rees, R., Kavanagh, J., Harden, A., Shepherd, J., Brunton, G., Oliver, S., & Oakley, A. (2006). Young people and physical activity: a systematic review matching their views to effective interventions. Health education research, 21(6), 806-825.

Sriramatr, S., Berry, T. R., & Spence, J. C. (2014). An Internet-based intervention for promoting and maintaining physical activity: a randomized controlled trial. American journal of health behavior, 38(3), 430-439.

Staiano, A. E., & Calvert, S. L. (2011). Exergames for physical education courses: Physical, social, and cognitive benefits. Child development perspectives, 5(2), 93-98.

Tudor-Locke, C., Craig, C. L., Thyfault, J. P., & Spence, J. C. (2012). A step-defined sedentary lifestyle index:< 5000 steps/day. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism, 38(2), 100-114.

Vandelanotte, C., Spathonis, K. M., Eakin, E. G., & Owen, N. (2007). Website-delivered physical activity interventions: A review of the literature. American journal of preventive medicine, 33(1), 54-64.

Wadsworth, D. D., & Hallam, J. S. (2010). Effect of a web site intervention on physical activity of college females. American Journal of Health Behavior, 34(1), 60-69.

World Health Organization. (2018). Global health observatory (GHO) data. URL. Available form: http://www. who. int/gho/tb/en.

Wong, F. Y. (2017). Influence of Pokémon Go on physical activity levels of university players: a cross-sectional study. International journal of health geographics, 16(1), 8.

Zhao, C.-M., Kuh, G. D., &Carini, R. M. (2005). A comparison of international student and American student engagement in effective educational practices. The Journal of Higher Education, 76(2), 209-231.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This journal is indexed by:


Copyright of Indonesian Nursing Journal of Education and Clinic (INJEC) (e-ISSN:2527-8819, p-ISSN:2527-8800).


View My Stats