The Difference of Sodium Intake, Physical Activities and Psychological Problems of Patients Suffering from Hypertension in Rural and Urban Areas

Heny Suseani Pangastuti, Melyza Perdana, Dewi Agustina Wati, Hatifah Ihsanda Tien Melati, Rizki Latifah

= http://dx.doi.org/10.24990/injec.v3i1.196
Abstract views = 119 times | views = 106 times

Abstract


Introduction: The patients suffering from hypertension require treatment to prevent the complications by performing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological hypertension management. This research aims at revealing the difference of sodium intake, physical activities, and psychological problems in patients suffering from hypertension in rural and urban areas. Methods: This descriptive-quantitative research employs a cross sectional design. The research was conducted at Gondokusuman Community Health Center 1 as the representation from the urban areas and Cangkringan Community Health Center as the representation from the rural areas. There were 81 patients from rural areas and 74 from urban areas. Data were collected using a consecutive sampling technique with Semi Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SQ-FFQ), Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale 42 (DASS 42). The data analysis was conducted using both chi-square test and independent t-test. Results: The result of independent t-test for sodium intake was at p = 0.669 (p > 0.005). The result of analysis using chi-square test for physical activity was at p = 0.000 (p < 0.05). The result of analysis using chi-square test for depression level is at p = 0.964 (p > 0.05), anxiety level at p = 0.005 (p < 0.05) and stress level at p = 0.846 (p > 0.05). Conclusions: There are some differences in physical activities and anxiety levels in patients suffering from hypertension in rural and urban areas.


Keywords


hypertension, sodium intake, physical activity, psychosocial problem, depression, anxiety, stress, rural, urban

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agrina., Rini, S.S., Hairitama, R. (2011). The adherence of older hypertension patient in hypertension diet . Study program of Nursing. Riau University.

Aisyiyah, F.N. (2009). Risk factors fo hypetension in four district/rural with highest prevalence in Java and Sumatra. Departemen Gizi Masyarakat Fakultas Ekologi Manusia Institut Pertanian Bogor. Departement of community nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology. Bogor Agricultural Univestity.

Aizawa, T., Helble M. (2016). Urbanization and Inequality in Hypertension Diagnosis & Medication in Indonesia. ADBI Working Paper 556: Tokyo. Asian Development Bank Institute.

Amu, D.A. (2015). Factors associated with to hypertension in urabn dan rural areas in Indonesia 2013. Under Graduate Thesis, Epidemiology Consentration, Study Program of Public health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta.

Anggraini, R (2014). The difference of stress level in coronary hearth disease patient and hypertension patient di Family docotr clinic Korpagama UGM. SStudy program of NUrsing. Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Arisman (2010). Nutrition SCience textbook: Nutrition in the life cycle. Jakarta: EGC.

Atmarita, A, Jahari, A.B., Sudikno, S., & Soekatri, M. (2016). Intake of sugar, salt and fat in Indonesia: Analysys of 2014 individual food consumtion surveys (SKMI). Journal of Indonesian Nutrition Assosiation. 39 (1), 1-14

Furkaniaty, A. (2009). The correlation of sodium intake with hypertension in coronary hearth disease patient in Cardiology outpatient RSUP Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta. Health Nutrition Study Program. Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Galav, A., Bhatanagar, R., Meghwal, S.C., Jain, M. (2015). Prevalence of hypertension among rural and urban population in southren rajasthan. National Journal of Community Medicine, 6(2), 174-178. Retrieved from www.njcmindia.org.

Ha, SK. (2014). Dietary Salt intake and hypertension. Electrolyte Blood Press 12, 7-18

Indonesian Cardiovascular Specialist Association (PERKI). (2015). Guidelines for managing hypertension in Cardiovascular diseases. Retrieved from http://www.inaheart.org/upload/file/Pedoman_TataLaksna_hipertensi_pada_penyakit_Kardiovaskular_2015.pdf

Islamia, I.’ Sunasti, E., & Hernawati, N (2012). Social pressure, psycological pressure and family welfare in rural and urban areas. Under graduate thessis. Bogor Agiculture institute. Retrieved from http://repository.ipb.ac.id/handle/123456789/60805

Jayamani, V., Gopichandran, V., Lee, P., Alexander, G., Christopher, S., Prasad, J.H. 2013. Diet and physical activity among women in urban and rural areas in south india: a community based comparative survey. J Family Med Prim Care, 2(4), 334-338. doi: 10.4103/2249-4863.123782.

Johnson, C., I (2017). Mean dietary salt intake in Urban and rural areas in India: A Population survey of 1395 persons. J.Am heart assoc. DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.116.004547, 1-8

Khusun, H., Wiradnyani, L.A.A., Siagian, N. (2016). Factors associated with obesity in adultd in urban Indonesia. Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan, 38(2), 95-110. doi: 10.22435/pgm.v38i2.5539.95-110.

Kretchy, A.A., Owusu-Daaku, F.T., Danquah, S.A. (2014). Mental health in hypertension: assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression and stressonanti-hypertensive medication adherence. Int J Ment Health syst, 21, 8-25.

Kumar, K., Kothari, R.P., Kothari, K., Garg, S., Khandelwal, M.K., Gupta, R. (2013). Prevalence of Hypertension in an Urban and Rural Area of Jaipur District. International J. of Healthcare & Biomedical Research. 1(3): 120-126.

Lovibond, P.F. & Lovibond, S.H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of Depression Ansiety Stress Scale (DASS) with the Beck Depression and anxiety inventories. Behav. Res. Ther. 33: 335-343.

Milis, K.T.; Bundy, J.D.; Kelly T.N.; Reed, J.E. Kearney, P.M.; Reynolds, K, Chen, J.; & He, J. (2016). Global Disparities of Hypertension prevalence and control: Asystematic analysis of Population-based STudies from 90 countries. Circulation. 134(6): 441-450. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.018912

Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. (2013). Basic Health Research (Riskesdas), Retrieved from dari www.depkes.go.id/resources/download/general/Hasil%20Riskesdas%202013.pdf

Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. (2014). Hypertension. Jakarta: Indonesian Ministry of Health’s Data and Information Center.

Primadita, A. (2009). The correlation of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium intake with hypertension in Mergangsan Health Center, Yogyakarta. Health Study Program. Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Rahayu, S. (2017). The effect of audiovisual health education on the level or physical activity in population with have risk of metabolic syndrome in Turi Health Care Center, Sleman. Undergraduate thesis, School of Nursing. Faculty of Medicine. Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

Shabrina, K.N. (2017). The effect of audiovisual health education to sodium intake in in population with have risk of metabolic syndrome in Turi Health Care Center, Sleman. Undergraduate thesis, School of Nursing. Faculty of Medicine. Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

Susetyo, D.P.B., Widiyatmadi, H.M.E., Sudiantara, Y. (2014). Self-concept and self-appreciation of the Javenese. Psikodimensia, 13(1): 47-59. Retrieved from i: http://journal.unika.ac.id/index.php/psi/article/view/277/268

Thanh, V.T., Duong, N.A., (2016). Promoting rural development, employment, and inclusive growth in ASEAN. Economic Research Institute for ASEAN (ERIA) Discussion Paper Series.

World Health Organization. 2012. Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ). WHO: Geneva, Switzerland.

Xue, J., Chen, S., Bogner, H.R., Tang, W., Li, L., Conwell, Y. 2016. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among older patients with hypertension in rural China. International Journal of Geriartric Psychiatry, 32 (12), 1411-1417. doi: 10.1002/gps.4628.

Yulia, S., & Rully, R. ( 2015). Salt intake in urban and rural community in Jatinangor, Sumedang. Journal of hypertension. 33.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This journal is indexed by:

 


Copyright of Indonesian Nursing Journal of Education and Clinic (INJEC) (e-ISSN:2527-8819, p-ISSN:2527-8800).

 

View My Stats